Prolonged (several weeks) hospitalization and restriction of physical activity over the subsequent months were the standard treatment for myocardial infarction until the early 1950s. But in the early 1970s. patients after myocardial infarction were usually hospitalized for 3 weeks.
Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation programs have been put into practice since the 1950s. and had the goal to overcome the state of detraining and reduced physical performance in patients caused by prolonged hospitalization and deliberate restriction of FA.
Physical training (FT) is considered as key elements in overcoming the state of de-training and cardiac rehabilitation, since physical training (FT) was among the few interventions that had proven effectiveness in preventing attacks of angina pectoris, and long before the use of β-AB, calcium antagonists, coronary artery bypass surgery and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA).
The reduction in the length of stay of patients in the hospital, as well as effective medications and interventions for the correction of myocardial ischemia influenced the structure and design of cardiac rehabilitation programs. FT continues to be one of the key elements of cardioreabilitation, however, according to the requirements of today, rehabilitation must be comprehensive.
Other key elements of a comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation are training and counseling patients in order to improve their psychological state, quit smoking, increase adherence of patients to therapy and diet. These educational components are so important that their knowledge is necessary when obtaining accreditation from the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation.
Physical training (FT) continues to be considered the most important component of cardiac rehabilitation programs due to the fact that FT increases TFN; reduce pain syndrome (stenocardia) and reduce myocardial ischemia caused by FN, and also correct such FR as serum lipid levels, arterial hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. This chapter is about cardiac rehabilitation in general, but with an emphasis on physical training.