Efficacy of alcohol for coronary heart disease
Alcohol consumption has a complex effect on cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Observational studies have shown that consuming large amounts of alcohol increases total mortality (OS) and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD).
In contrast,> 100 prospective studies showed an inverse relationship between low and moderate alcohol consumption and the risk of heart attacks, ischemic stroke, peripheral arterial disease (PAD), sudden cardiac death (SCD) and death from all cardiovascular causes. The effect is relatively permanent and corresponds to a risk reduction of 20-45%.
Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decrease in USA in primary and secondary prevention in both men and women. The mechanisms underlying the effect of moderate alcohol consumption (1-2 servings per day) contribute to the increase in cholesterol level of cholesterol levels, improve fibrinolytic ability, reduce platelet aggregation and CRP levels.
Studies have clearly shown the protective effect of alcohol on cholesterol. Although there is an assumption about the unique cardioprotective properties of red wine, most studies have found the same positive effect of different types of alcohol when it is moderately consumed.
Recommendations for taking alcohol. Although the association of alcohol with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) is probably causal, individual and community recommendations must take into account the complexity of the metabolic, nutritional and psychological effects of alcohol. The consumption of small or moderate portions of alcohol or a large amount of alcohol causes a protective or harmful effect, respectively.
All patients should be advised to avoid excessive alcohol consumption. For certain patients, a discussion about alcohol can be part of routine preventive counseling. In general, 1-2 servings of alcohol (drink) are safe for men, but for women it is more reasonable to limit themselves to smaller doses, because they usually have less body mass (MT) and there are differences in hepatic metabolism.
However, counseling must be strictly individual; when discussing the problem of alcohol consumption, other coronary risk factors (RF) (especially hypertension and diabetes), as well as a family history of liver disease, alcoholism, breast cancer or colon should be taken into account.