Efficacy of diet for coronary heart disease
Diet has a significant effect on the risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD). Cross-cultural studies have shown that diet plays an important role in relation to both KBS and other chronic diseases. For example, a Ni-Hon-San study found that Japanese immigrants who moved to Hawaii or California, often suffer from coronary heart disease (CHD) and ischemic stroke, like the natives of the United States.
However, understanding the specific components of the Western diet that affect this risk remains in question. Dietary research is difficult because of the complexity of the measurements. Nevertheless, some dietary habits have been well studied. This section will discuss macronutrients (fats, carbohydrates, proteins), as well as alcohol. Supplements, nutraceuticals and specific products are discussed below.
Observational studies of the effectiveness of the diet. In observational studies, nutritional patterns were identified that may affect the risk of CHD. One of the key features of the Western lifestyle is excessive calorie intake compared to their costs. One of the constant findings of observational studies is the fact that people consuming a lot of vegetables and fruits are less likely to develop CHD and stroke.
Other components of the Western diet, which can increase the risk of KBS, are saturated fatty acids and trans fats, simple carbohydrates that create an increased glycemic load, and lack of fiber.
Metabolic studies of the effectiveness of the diet. Metabolic studies have shown that diet is an important component of any prevention program. Diet can have a pronounced effect on weight loss (MT), which, in turn, can positively affect DLP, hypertension and diabetes.
Even without weight loss (MT), a healthy diet can improve the lipid profile and provide the body with nutrients that have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular events (SSSob). The study DASH 459 adults with CAD <160 mmHg. st. and dad <80-95 mm Hg. st. were randomly divided into the following groups:
(1) on a control diet with a small amount of fruits, vegetables, and dairy products with a fat content of 37%;
(2) on a diet rich in vegetables and fruits;
(3) on a combination diet that includes a lot of vegetables and fruits and low-fat dairy products. Both therapeutic diets significantly reduced SBP and DBP in individuals with and without AH.
A review of the results of 147 metabolic studies, prospective cohort and clinical studies showed that at least 3 nutritional strategies are effective in preventing KBS: replacing saturated fatty acids and trans fats with non-hydrogenated unsaturated fatty acids; increased consumption of omega-3 fatty acids in the form of fish or fish oil, or from plant sources; use of a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, nuts, whole grains, and containing a small amount of refined cereal products.