Effectiveness of cardiac rehabilitation after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)

In several large studies, the effectiveness of cardiac rehabilitation based on physical training (PT) has been studied in patients after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). In the ETICA study (Execise Training Intervention after Coronary Angioplasty), the effect of PT on clinical outcomes was studied in 118 patients who underwent PTCA with one CA (n = 81) or two CA (n = 37).

Patients were randomized to the group in which they performed FT, and the group of routine practice. Physical training (FT) (3 times a week for 6 months) consisted of physical exertion (FN) on an exercise bike (30 min) and gymnastics (15 min). At the beginning and at the end of the study, a stress test was carried out, the stopping criteria for which were patient fatigue, the achievement of the target heart rate or ST-segment depression> 1 mm.

Indicators of VO2max and quality of life increased by 26% (p <0.001) only in the FT group. The frequency of angiographically confirmed CA restenoses (narrowing> 50%) for 6 months of observation did not differ in the two groups (29% vs 33%), but the intracavitary diameter of the CA at the intervention site in the TF group was 30% higher (p <0.05) .

Progression of the disease and new lesions in large CA (narrowing> 20%) in the TF group were observed much less frequently. Cardiac ischemia, which was assessed by the presence of defects during waist perfusion during myocardial scintigraphy, was also observed less frequently in trained patients. The observation period after the completion of the intervention was 33 ± 7 months. During this time, no deaths occurred in any of the groups, however, in the TF group, AMI (1 vs 3) was less frequently noted (p <0.008) and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) was performed (4 vs 11) or CS ( 2 vs 5).

This study was conducted prior to the widespread use of stents during PTCA and the use of drug-eluting stents. Thus, only 19 patients from the FT group and 18 patients from the control group had stents installed.

In addition, they did not use lipid-lowering therapy because they evaluated the effect of TF on lipid levels. Consequently, it is not clear that PT would have given a similar slowdown in the development of atherosclerosis and a reduction in the frequency of cardiac events if they performed comprehensive modern therapy. In addition, it is not clear to what extent the improvement of the condition of the coronary artery (CA) occurred due to structural changes in atherosclerotic plaques, and to which due to the improvement of endothelial function.

Effectiveness of cardiac rehabilitation in myocardial infarction

In 4 meta-analyzes, the effect of cardiac rehabilitation based on physical training (PT) on clinical outcomes was studied. All of them showed similar results, since based largely on the same research.

The most recent analysis summarized 48 studies with a total of 8940 included patients, randomized or in cardiac rehabilitation groups, or in routine practice groups. Total mortality and mortality from cardiac causes were lower in the cardiac rehabilitation groups by 20 and 26%, respectively (p <0.05 for both indicators). Repetitive MIs were noted 20% less frequently, but this difference was not statistically significant.

Most of the studies included in this meta-analysis were conducted prior to the development of modern strategies for revascularization, so it is possible that many patients in these early studies showed residual coronary stenosis and inducible ischemia. At present, such patients are usually given PTCA or CSH.

Even with the established positive effect of cardiac rehabilitation on myocardial ischemia, due to the widespread use of myocardial revascularization interventions, there is no certainty that cardiac rehabilitation will show a similar decrease in cardiac mortality. The most recent meta-analysis revealed no differences in studies conducted before and after 1995, therefore, the positive effects of cardiac rehabilitation can be considered legitimate for modern cardiological practice.

There were also no differences between the effect of physical training (PT) and more comprehensive rehabilitation programs, which confirms the role of PT in reducing heart mortality.

The results of meta-analyzes confirm the positive effect of physical training (PT), however, none of the studies had sufficient statistical power to confirm the reduction in cardiovascular mortality after cardiac rehabilitation.

Meta-analyzes are often criticized because of their tendency to focus on positive research results. On the other hand, the inclusion of studies based only on TF in meta-analyzes can lead to an underestimation of the effectiveness of complex cardio-rehabilitation. To address these concerns, two large-scale comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation studies are currently underway.

The study GOSPEL (Global Secondary Prevention Strategies for Limit Events after Myocardial Infarction) included 3241 patients from 78 centers in Italy. All patients after 3 months of the standard rehabilitation program will be randomly assigned to a group of 3-year intensive rehabilitation program and a standard observation group in the district clinic.

In the intensive rehabilitation group, they will conduct physical training (TF), lifestyle counseling and RF, and regular clinical examinations once a month for 6 months and then 2 times a year until the end of the study.

In a study of DANREHAB (Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation) with 770 patients with IHD, HF, or those at high risk of developing IHD, an intensive hospital cardiorehabilitation program is carried out for 6 weeks, followed by outpatient observation for 12 months. The program includes TF, nutritional recommendations, counseling on RF, smoking cessation and clinical examinations. Supposed to recruit 1800 patients. When the results of the study will be presented and whether it will be possible to include such a number of patients in the study is unknown.

Effectiveness of cardiac rehabilitation in angina pectoris

Currently, most patients with angina pectoris can cope with the symptoms of the disease using drug therapy or myocardial revascularization with PTCA or CS. Most of the evidence (with rare exceptions) that physical exercise (PT) increases exercise tolerance (TFN) in patients with angina pectoris, was obtained before 1990. FT increases the duration of FN before the onset of angina pectoris or completely eliminates angina pectoris by at least least two mechanisms.

First, physical training (PT) reduces the oxygen demand of the myocardium during submaximal FN. FT endurance increase VO2max. Since the change in HR and SAD during an FN is associated more with the degree of increase in VO2max (depending on the nature of the FN, and not from its absolute value), an increase in VO2max with FT leads to a decrease in the increase in HR and SAD per submaximal load. This reduction in double work reduces myocardial oxygen demand and retards the onset of an attack of angina.

Secondly, physical exercise (TF) reduces ED. Normal CAs in response to FNs expand, and for atherosclerotic-affected CAs, ED is manifested, which is manifested in FN by vasoconstriction. According to continuous coronary angiography performed on the background of the introduction of endothelial acetylcholine agonist to patients, FN reduce ED. The fact that in some patients at the very beginning of the FN an increase in blood pressure is observed also confirms the concept of the significance of endothelial function.

Physical training (FT) is considered to be shown (at least in the USA) to patients with angina in cases where it is impractical or impossible to perform surgical interventions on spacecraft. However, a recent clinical study led to a reconsideration of this approach. Hambrecht S. et al. studied the dynamics of physical performance, anatomical features of spacecraft and clinical outcomes in 101 men <70 years old with stable angina, who were randomized into 2 groups: in the first group, PT was performed during the year, and the second group of patients underwent PTCA.

Physical training (FT) was performed for 2 weeks, 6 days a week. TF included a 10-minute FN with training heart rate = 70% of the maximum in combination with daily 20-minute home TF iodine weekly 60-minute controlled TF.

In each group, 47 patients completed the study. The level of physical performance increased by 30% in trained patients and by 20% in those who underwent PTCA. Moreover, the differences were not significant, however, the increase in the maximum physical performance (20% vs 0%) and VO2max (16% vs 2%) were significantly higher in the trained patients. In the latter, the degree of spacecraft lesion did not change, and among patients who underwent PTCA, only 15% had restenosis, defined as a narrowing (> 50%) of the vessel at the site of angioplasty.

The progression of coronary heart disease (CHD), as measured by angiography, was lower in the FT group. 88% of patients from the PTCA group and only 70% of the patients from the TF group suffered acute Ssob, including myocardial infarction, stroke, revascularization procedure, or hospitalization for angina pectoris. Moreover, the difference was statistically significant. These results require confirmation. Due to the specificity of the selection criteria, they cannot be applied to all patients with stable angina. However, these results clearly demonstrated that PT can make a definite contribution to the treatment of patients with angina.

Physiology of physical activity and training for heart disease

a) Maximum oxygen consumption. Aerobic and static loads increase the body’s need for oxygen to provide energy to working muscle groups. The amount of energy used during FN is determined through oxygen consumption (VO2). The modified Fick formula: CB = VO2 / L (A – B) 02, where CB is a cardiac output, VO2 is oxygen consumption, Δ (A – B) O2 is the difference in 02 between arteries (A) and veins (B). In other words, the oxygen consumption depends on the CB and Δ (A – B) O2.

Thus, the metabolic needs when performing FN require an increase in oxygen delivery, which is provided by an increase in Δ (A – B) O2 and an increase in CB, which, in turn, depends on the heart rate and stroke volume (EI) of the heart. Δ (A – B) O2 during the execution of FN increases due to the redistribution of blood and, accordingly, oxygen from non-working tissues (for example, the kidneys and organs of the abdominal cavity) to working muscles. In addition, in working muscles, blood viscosity increases due to the transition of a certain part of blood plasma into the interstitial space. An increase in CB during FN is closely related to VO2. Thus, an increase in VO2 per liter leads to an increase in the total nitrogen concentration by = 6 l.

The maximum power of FN is defined as the maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) that is transported in a person when performing FN until the moment when it is stopped due to fatigue or shortness of breath. Individual VO2max is a stable and reproducible indicator of physical performance. It is expressed either in absolute terms (l / min) or relative to MT (ml / kg / min). The maximum increase in Δ (A – B) O2 is a fixed value and is = 15-17 vol%. Since the intensity of the FN determines the oxygen consumption, which depends on the CB and Δ (A – B) O2, and the maximum Δ (A – B) O2 is a relatively constant value, the maximum power of the FN and VO2max indirectly indicate the maximum myocardial contractility (or maximum CB) and PP).

b) Myocardial oxygen consumption. Oxygen consumption by the myocardium (MVO2) is determined by the levels of HR and SBP through the so-called dual product: HR (beats / min) x CAD (mm Hg). Human physical performance depends on the consumption of oxygen and CB, and the degree of increase in heart rate and SBP during the FN is determined by the increase in oxygen demand (as a percentage of VO2max). Consequently, for any absolute value of the FN, a person with a large VO2max uses less of his reserve and, at a high FN, has a lower heart rate and an AAD. The key point: the myocardial oxygen demand is determined not only by the severity of the FN, but by the ratio of the severity of the load to the maximum physical performance.

c) Respiratory threshold. Carbon dioxide emissions (VCO2) with FN also increase. The increase in VO2 and VCO2 occurs in parallel, but the intensity of the release of CO2 increases faster. The amount at which an increase in oxygen demand is not accompanied by a further increase in carbon dioxide emissions is called a respiratory threshold (VT). This discrepancy is due to the formation of lactate, the buffering of H + lactate ions with bicarbonate and the subsequent formation of additional CO 2. The respiratory threshold is also called the anaerobic threshold and the onset of lactate accumulation in the blood. Since CO2 stimulates the respiratory center, a nonlinear increase in the respiratory rate occurs at the respiratory threshold and moderate shortness of breath appears. The respiratory threshold during FN is usually marked at 50% of VO2max in untrained people and makes up a higher percentage of VO2max in trained individuals. Respiratory threshold is an important indicator of TFN, because it reflects the maximum sustainable level of performance that can be achieved during submaximal loads.

d) The effect of heart disease on physical performance. Physical performance in some cardiac patients may be normal and age and sex, while others may be limited if the heart’s CR decreases, the heart rate response to the FN is disturbed, there is myocardial ischemia, which, in turn, limits the FA of patients or increase in PP at peak FN. Drugs such as β-AB, which limit the changes in heart rate during FN, as well as the limitations of FA in patients with heart disease, which cause the effect of detraining, make a definite contribution to the reduction of TFN.

e) The effect of physical training on physical performance. The main purpose of FT (aerobic or static) is to increase the physical performance of patients with heart disease. With static loads, an increase in muscle strength and endurance occurs in a trained muscle. The main effect of aerobic exercise is to increase VO2max. This provides a lower percentage of VO2max at submaximal FN, which reduces the increase in heart rate and SBP during FN and myocardial oxygen demand. Increased endurance also increases both the absolute respiratory threshold and the respiratory threshold as a percentage of VO2max.

Many mechanisms contribute to the increase in TFN after FT, including PP and Δ (A – B) O2, although the magnitude of the latter has clear physiological limitations.

The degree of increase in VO2max during static loads depends on a number of factors, including the patient’s age, the intensity and duration of PT, the genetic characteristics of the patient and the clinical condition, as well as whether similar exercises are used in FT and testing. Usually the degree of increase in TFN is greatest in young people who have been intensively trained. The degree of increase in VO2max in patients after cardiac rehabilitation averages 11–36%, but depends on the severity of the underlying disease. For example, in patients with significantly reduced cardiac contractility, an increase in physical performance can be achieved by increasing Δ (A – B) O2, although in some patients after 12 months of TF an increase in CV is also observed.

In addition to increasing the maximum physical performance, endurance exercises increase stamina due to the effect on the respiratory threshold. This influence is extremely important because increased submaximal physical performance reduces shortness of breath with submaximal fn and provides for the implementation of most daily tasks, none of which require maximum effort.

The history of the rehabilitation of patients in cardiology

Prolonged (several weeks) hospitalization and restriction of physical activity over the subsequent months were the standard treatment for myocardial infarction until the early 1950s. But in the early 1970s. patients after myocardial infarction were usually hospitalized for 3 weeks.

Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation programs have been put into practice since the 1950s. and had the goal to overcome the state of detraining and reduced physical performance in patients caused by prolonged hospitalization and deliberate restriction of FA.

Physical training (FT) is considered as key elements in overcoming the state of de-training and cardiac rehabilitation, since physical training (FT) was among the few interventions that had proven effectiveness in preventing attacks of angina pectoris, and long before the use of β-AB, calcium antagonists, coronary artery bypass surgery and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA).

The reduction in the length of stay of patients in the hospital, as well as effective medications and interventions for the correction of myocardial ischemia influenced the structure and design of cardiac rehabilitation programs. FT continues to be one of the key elements of cardioreabilitation, however, according to the requirements of today, rehabilitation must be comprehensive.

Other key elements of a comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation are training and counseling patients in order to improve their psychological state, quit smoking, increase adherence of patients to therapy and diet. These educational components are so important that their knowledge is necessary when obtaining accreditation from the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation.

Physical training (FT) continues to be considered the most important component of cardiac rehabilitation programs due to the fact that FT increases TFN; reduce pain syndrome (stenocardia) and reduce myocardial ischemia caused by FN, and also correct such FR as serum lipid levels, arterial hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. This chapter is about cardiac rehabilitation in general, but with an emphasis on physical training.

Recommendations for the prevention of coronary heart disease

Recommendations for the prevention of coronary heart disease

Most preventive interventions target one risk factor (RF), but several have attempted to simultaneously change several RFs. Theoretically, the possibility of synergism among RFs can lead to a significant reduction in the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD).

Multifactorial interventions have greatly contributed to the understanding of cardiovascular risk (CCP), as well as increased knowledge of the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of intervention strategies, but their results were different. It is obvious that multifactorial intervention can reduce the level of FR, and this reduction can be long-lasting. In the Belgian study, which was part of the World Health Organization European Collaborative Trial in the Multifactorial Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease, the intervention program consisted of staff counseling on nutrition, smoking and FA and led to a significant reduction in predictors of coronary risk compared to the control group . This effect has been persistent for 5 years.

The overall result of multifactorial interventions is a change in the levels of DF or indicators of total risk scales in the intervention group. However, these changes did not always translate into a reduction in the frequency of events. These discrepancies can be explained by the fact that the intervention was too small or the patients in the control group also changed their lifestyle for the better over time. However, it is clear from these studies that by using simultaneous multifactorial interventions, CCP can be reduced if the planned interventions are large enough and adequately implemented.

In the analysis of 7 multifactorial interventions, changes in the multiple logistical risk function were compared with a reduction in the risk of CHD. A strong linear relationship suggests that if the risk factor (DF) does change, the frequency of events will also decrease.

Types of evidence on risk factors

Types of evidence on risk factors

Evidence on risk factors (RF) is obtained from various sources. Studies on autopsy have shown that atherosclerosis can begin to develop even at an early age, if there are the same RF CVDs as in adults. Establishing a link between cause and effect is a major step in determining predictors, and the results of several studies are needed to select a preventive intervention. Fundamental studies of human physiology made it possible to penetrate into the mechanisms of atherogenesis and helped to establish the biological probability of a potential intervention in order to change these effects.

Observational studies involving people (cohort, prospective, case-control) are extremely useful in determining the attributive risk of a particular factor. Randomized trials can help confirm a causal relationship and are necessary for choosing interventions to reduce risk.

Each of these strategies has strengths and weaknesses. Descriptive studies (for example, the description of a single observation, a series of observations, cross-sectional, cross-cultural studies, the study of population temporal trends) have considerable value because of the ability to generate hypotheses. However, their design does not adequately control potential factors that may obscure obvious associations. Observational studies (eg, cohort, prospective, case-control) can better control potential inaccuracies.

Observational studies are particularly important in determining the attributable risk of a particular factor, when this factor has a great effect, as in the case of smoking and lung cancer. However, when small or moderate effects are studied in observational studies, the number of uncontrollable distorting factors can be as great as the probable risk itself.

In such cases, randomized studies are needed to confirm causality. When the causal relationship between RF and the disease is confirmed, appropriate intervention should be selected and applied. Even if the causal relationship is beyond doubt, research will help quantify the effect of the intervention. When the question arises about the choice between risk and benefit of intervention, randomized studies are needed to determine its net clinical effect.

This provision is important because the degree of associated risk is not necessarily related to the magnitude of the benefits obtained as a result of the intervention. This lack of correlation may be due to the inability of a specific intervention to achieve the desired effect, or the magnitude of the change may not lead to a corresponding change in risk. An example is the difference between the risk of an increase in blood pressure pa 1 mm Hg. st. and less than expected benefit for CHD while reducing blood pressure by the same amount. Similarly, elevated Gmc is considered to be FR KBS, and folic acid reduces Gmc levels, but randomized studies have shown that lowering Gmc levels with folic acid does not reduce the risk of KBS.

Meta-analysis allows a better assessment of the risk associated with a specific risk factor (RF), or the benefit of an intervention. For example, an assessment of the benefits of aspirin in secondary prophylaxis was obtained as a result of a large meta-analysis of data from 300 clinical studies, which demonstrated that in patients with CVD, aspirin reduces the risk of major SSSob by 25%.

After obtaining acceptable assessments of the benefits and risks for a specific risk factor (RF), a cost-effectiveness analysis can help develop guidance for an intervention. To compare interventions, a single currency is used, calculating QALY or a year of life adjusted for disability (disability-adjusted life-year, DALY). The estimates obtained from this analysis depend on the assumptions made in this analysis. Due to the fact that preventive measures are long-lasting (lasting for decades), the consequences of the initial assumptions regarding these measures may be more important than with short-term interventions. However, the cost-effectiveness indicators of interventions for CVD prevention are important because the prevalence of CHD and the cost of treating it are high.

The cost-effectiveness indicator is calculated as the ratio of the net cost to the increase in life expectancy. Interventions with a cost-effectiveness ratio <$ 40,000 for QALY are comparable to other permanent interventions, such as control of hypertension and hemodialysis. Interventions with a cost-effectiveness indicator of <$ 20 thousand for QALY are welcome, while with an indicator of> $ 40 thousand for QALY are usually perceived by insurers as intervention above an acceptable level. The economic costs of ineffective primary prevention measures for persons with modifiable DFs> 2 in the United States annually amount to $ 13.2 billion.

Criteria for a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD)

Criteria for a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD)

Primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) is indisputable for public health. Given the prevalence of this disease, preventing even a small number of cardiovascular events (SSSob) will save thousands of lives, avoid countless suffering, and save billions of dollars from the money spent on health care.

In addition, measures that can prevent coronary heart disease (CHD) can reduce the risk of other manifestations of atherosclerosis – stroke, peripheral arterial disease (PAD), and also affect hypertension, diabetes, cognitive function, cancer, depression and other chronic conditions . Due to the fact that cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have become “the number one killer” in the world, the use of large-scale preventive strategies should become the main objective of health care in developed and developing countries.

The constant accumulation of knowledge about the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and the understanding of the relationship between lifestyle, biochemical and genetic factors and heart disease have contributed to a significant decrease in age-corrected cardiovascular mortality. The first step to prevention is the recognition of these factors as predictors of a likely atherosclerotic event. Based on risk factors (RF), scales were developed for assessing the individual risk of cardiovascular events (SSSob).

However, the disease prevention process should continue after assessing the likelihood of future events and consists in identifying an intervention that will reduce the risk. Once the studies have correlated the benefits of interventions with their risk and cost, appropriate guidelines can be developed for health care organizers.

Guidelines have been developed for the prevention of individual risk factors (RF), which ensured successful screening and modification of several major risk factors (RF): smoking, dyslipidemia (DLP), and arterial hypertension (AH). However, the implementation and integration of these guidelines remains a difficult task. The large volume and complexity of the presentation of materials in these manuals make it difficult to use them. The lack of time for doctors to act according to the recommendations is an additional barrier: only cardiovascular preventive measures recommended by the USPSTF (U.S. Preventive Services Task Force) will take the clinician at least 1.5 hours a day. The lack of appropriate remuneration also limits the use of certain preventive interventions.

The articles on the site used a new approach to the determination of risk factors (RF) in order to simplify the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). First, various types of DF and methods of using information about them in clinical practice will be discussed. It then proposes a simple approach to using RF as predictors of risk. Then follows a description of a specific sequence of preventive interventions, which are divided into three categories.

After that, this article will describe potentially modifiable risk factors (RF) and interventions, provide information on their prevalence, associated risk, benefits and costs of treatment, as well as recommendations for each RF and multifactor intervention strategies.

When cardiovascular diseases (CVD) became the dominant chronic diseases in economically developed countries, this phenomenon was regarded as a natural consequence of the aging population. In most cases, CVDs are mainly diseases of anthropogenic origin, i.e. largely dependent on a person’s lifestyle. Over the past 50 years, great progress has been made in identifying many CVDs due to lifestyle and biochemical and genetic factors, as well as in disseminating this information among the population.

How the Cardiovascular System Works

In what condition are our veins, arteries and capillaries, in this state we are also. Each organ and system has its own resource. Once healthy vessels become clogged, they are deposited salts, cholesterol plaques appear, as the result of which is, not only damaged the wall of the vessels themselves, but also to the taphole blood. The load on the heart increases, and it gradually wears out.

The consequences are the most sad – atherosclerosis, tri ombas leading to heart attacks and strokes, hypertension, arrhythmia, etc. But do not despair and despair: the heart, blood vessels and blood can be cleansed, restored to them a lost safety margin, prolong their normal work for another long years. How? Regular cleaning procedures.

The book contains the best methods for cleaning the heart and blood vessels, diluting blood and capillarotherapy, including nowhere else previously printed , but already deserved the highest marks of specialists: treatment with medical leeches and bees, curative starvation, a healing system of ancient yogis and much more.

We do not think about the condition and even the presence of internal organs as long as they work properly. The most important in the complex “computer” of the body is the cardiovascular system (the circulatory system),which feeds oxygen to our tissues and organs.

Pumping the blood should a healthy heart. Uvs , today we often hear the expression “weak heart” when it comes to young people. As a rule, it is they who, in view of their professional activities, live in a state of constant psycho- emotional stress. And if we add here people’s inclination to unrestrained entertainment “non-stop” – it becomes clear how much the cardiovascular system suffers from the frequent release of adrenaline and norepinephrine. It would seem that the bad thing is that the “unaccounted” adrenal is produced in the human organism . On the contrary, we feel more cheerful. But from excessive overexcitation and work in the normal regime, the arterial pressure rises , the stocks of potassium and magnesium ions deplete, arrythmia arises, etc.

Hence the wear of the heart and the contamination of the vessels. It goes without saying that neither a cigarette smoked, a glass of wine , nor a cup of strong coffee, nor “its well” when it comes to morning exercises and an evening walk, are also beneficial to the cardiovascular system . As well as the addiction to the TV, a long “sofa bed” and excessively satisfying food.

What usually is the prehistory of such catastrophes of our organism as arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction and cerebral infarction? Tested stress, after which we did not allow the body to fully recover.And here we mean not only a qualitative rest, but also a sufficient restoration of the level of potassium and magnesium ions in the blood . The relentless observation that the proper balance of these substances is maintained in the body is one of the cornerstones of humane treatment of the cardiovascular system. And here, by the way, it ‘s not just to eat foods that contain a lot of magnesium and potassium. It is important not to abuse foods,supersaturated fats, proteins, calcium and phosphorus (of course, we are not talking about abandoning these substances in principle, and this is not possible). The listed ingredients strongly suppress potassium and magnesium. To cheerfully imbibe such a bias in the diet , you should eat 450 grams of spinach or 200 g of sea kale daily, or constantly take medicines containing potassium and magnesium.

Surely you know the expression “heart failure “, in other words, lack of blood circulation. But does everyone know that it is not only innate, but and acquired due to careless attitude to his cardiovascular system?

The duty of the heart is to pump every hour up to 210 liters of blood. And neglected vessels lose their ability in a normal regime to provide our organs and tissues with the substances they need . It is the purification of blood and blood vessels that is devoted to this book.

Human life is impossible without a permanent circulation of blood in the body. Blood supplies oxygen and nutrients to cells and removes slag , carbon dioxide and cell waste products. The function of the blood movement is performed by the cardiovascular system, which consists of the heart and the cryogenic and lymphatic vessels. A person has a closed circulatory system, that is, blood is only in the vasculature , and its movement is due to the work of the heart.

We will understand the structure and functions of parts of the circulatory system.

A heart

In the textbook of anatomy you could see that the heart ka would be suspended on a bundle of large vessels in the center of the chest, approximately at the level of the location of the third rib.


The volume of the heart usually corresponds to the volume of his master’s fist.

The average parameters of the heart of an adult human are 12-15 cm in length and 9-11 cm in width.

What does the heart consist of? This hollow muscular organ contains four chambers. The heart wall consists of a myocardium (a special muscle tissue) performing a contractile function, and fibers that form the cardiovascular system of the heart. Outside, this organ is covered with a dense membrane – the pericardium. The heart can be divided into two halves – the right and the left. Each of them consists of the atrium and the ventricle. The righthalf pumps venous blood through the lungs, and the left half – arterial (a kis rich in blood) blood throughout the body. The chambers and the output of the heart are separated by valves, which ensure blood flow only in one direction, preventing it from returning. With a contraction of the heart at first, the atria become dyed, while the blood enters the ventricles, and then, when reduced, goes to the small and large circles of the circulation


When we are in a calm state, the heart commits about 60-70 beats per minute. The days of “quiet” life are identical to those thousands of heart beats (that is, 13-25 thousand yachts liters pumped to rye), and a month to three million.

Consider the work of the right heart. Venous blood from the whole body returns in the right atrium along two large veins. Then the blood enters the right ventricle, and from there – into the lungs (a small circle of blood circulation), where carbon dioxide is removed and the blood is enriched with oxygen. Then, through the lungs, the blood returns to the heart, along the four veins it flows into the right atrium, then into the ventricle and is pushed into the aorta, where the movement of blood throughout the body begins .

In other words, the heart is the engine that provides the movement of blood through the body . This is just one of the muscles, which really resembles the engine by the presence of two valve pumps (right and left). Another difference between the heart muscle and the skeletal muscle is its belted system of blood vessels (or vessels), because the heart requires twice as much blood flow. By the way, the names of coronary vessels consume a tenth of all blood moving to the arterial bed from the left ventricle. Atria and ventricles are communicated by means of openings, which are opened and closed by valves. Exactly the same valves cut off the ventricles from arterial beds .

Can the heart not work, that is, be at rest? Can. The period of systole (contraction) of the atria and ventricles alternates with a diastole, a relaxation of the heart muscle. During diastole, the blood is sent from the veins to the atrium, then, when the atria contract, it enters the ventricles, which are still relaxed. Thus , the time of systole and diastole of the ventricles and atria is different.

The continuous rhythm of the work of the heart keeps the blessings of an end to the sinus node. Of course, the heart muscle itself functions automatically , that is, it is reduced due to self-occurrence of bioelectric impulses in it. It is the sinus node located in the right atrium that is the place where these impulses originate. Following them, the heart muscle begins to contract. If the heart is healthy, the average frequency of its contractions is 60 beats per minute. Accordingly , the functions of the sinus node are disrupted, the amount of blood it receives (in combination with oxygen and nutrients ) should be reduced. It turns out that the pr and poor nutrition of the function of the sinus node and the heart system, through which nerve impulses are transmitted to the atria and ventricles, are violated. As a consequence – paroxysmal tachycardia, various atrioventricular blockades and other types of arrhythmia.


It’s hard to believe, but in the working capacity of the human heart lies a huge potential but is designed to work without failures for 90-100 years! If you also support it, then this period increases by 40 years .

Now you know how the heart works – the most important muscle in the body.


In addition to the heart, the circulatory system includes cranial vessels – veins and arteries , which are connected by a capillary network.

Vessels differ in structure. In the walls of the artery there are more muscle fibers and elastic tissue to maintain normal arterial pressure in the body. The special feature of veins is that they have valves that prevent reverse current blood. A common quality for all blood vessels is the inner layer (intima), imparting the inner wall of all vessels smoothness for better blood flow.

Thanks to the “crimson rivers” in our body, there are tons of continuous movement of blood in the vessels, and there is a full (or in the case of abolevaniya vessels – not quite) the power of each of our cells, because it is through the blood, through its movement and carried etsya coordinated work of all organism, all organs and tissues in unison.

But the exchange of substances and gases between cells and blood occurs through the smallest vessels called capillaries. They filigree all the human body (this explains the fact that we have, for example, the blood from thefinger, even if we do not hurt at all with a needle). It is impossible to see capillary sap without a microscope, they are thinner than a human hair, and their walls consist of only a few cells.


The total length of all capillary vessels of one person, be they extended in a continuous line, would be about 80 thousand kilometers!

In other words, capillary vessels are the ” life-long” of our body, through which blood, oxygen, nutrients and mineral salts are delivered to the cells by blood flow , while the decay products are washed out.

In the diet of the body through the blood stream, a strict balance must be observed . To all cells, without exception, the blood must supply the right amount of vital substances. And to completely remove the decay products.And wherever it is important that there is not a single “weak link” in the body , after getting into the affected organ, the blood will get sick of this disease further. Faced with obstacles in the form of damage to the arteries, veins and capillaries, blood “stalled” in the vessels, and they are afflicted, provoking diseases of other organs, especially the heart. Consequently, purification of the cardiovascular system begins with the purification of blood and blood vessels, first of all – the capillaries.

How does the human heart and capillary vessels interact ? The power of the heart, no matter what “fiery motor” it is, in fact, is not enough to give blood flowing through the arteries, a push of the right force, capable of delivering blood to the capillaries. However, the blood enters the capillary , moreover, then it moves back, getting into the veins.

Schematically, the blood flow can be depicted as follows: from the heart, blood is directed to the arteries (imagine them in the form of stretching and expanding tubes). Arteries trans port it to the capillaries. Having been there, the blood enters the veins (imagine them in the form of suction tubes) and through them – again into the heart. It turns out that the cardiac output is designed to “push” the blood from the arteries to the capillaries.Why are the capillaries sick? Let’s start with the fact that the capillaries in our body are the sector most susceptible to the harmful effects of products of decay. All that is included in the concept of “unhealthy way of life”, in practice, would very quickly lead to a decrease in the penetration of blood vessels to their full blockage. And, if one of our organs is sick, first of all it is a sign that the capillaries are ill with us . And the fact that the blood cannot be conveyed to a certain cell of the body means that soon the cells that have remained without adequate nutrition will die off, overloading the orgasm with the decay products that will accumulate inside us in dangerous quantities.

However, not only capillaries can get sick. Not infrequently, the history of the heart disease of the cardiovascular system is damaged by the internal shell of the arteries.

Imagine that small atheromatous plaques appear on the walls of arterial vessels . Over time, there will be more, and they will increase in size.

It will take some time, and the inner shell of the artery will resemble a dry, cracked earth. As a result, the blood will cease to flow into some “harbor” of our body. In other words, one or more internal organs will begin to testthe blood supply deficit. And the more noticeable these obstacles will be “pushed” into our bloodstream , the more significant will be the pressure rises. But this is only the beginning. Over time, thrombi will begin to form in the arteries, which, expanding, can completely cover the vessel and lead to a heart attack. After all, what thicket does everything in the body, when doctors detect a heart attack? The thrombus hangs on the inner wall of the artery on the stalk like a parasitic fungus. It is clear that, carrying such a grain on its own , the artery works with great difficulty. At some point, the overstrain of the artery reaches a critical point, the thrombus breaks away from the vessel and, like a lethal pool , carried away by the bloodstream, rushes along the channel of the vessel. And when finally the clot is in a narrow space and SAG tre Vaeth it can occur death.

It is interesting that in men, blood vessels are clogged much more quickly, in addition, at a younger age. Women are lucky here – right up to the beginning of the climax, they develop a hormone that inhibits the clogging of blood vessels. Ks tati, women here in some way took care of men and in microdoses transmit this hormone to me in the process of intimate contact. Consequently, even regular marital life is beneficial for the purification of the cardiovascular system.

So, we summarize what was said. In what condition are the vessels (veins, arteries and capillaries), in this state we are also. But all the body and system has its own resource. Vessels become clogged, salts are deposited in them, cholesterol plaques grow, the walls and blood cells are damaged. The load is increasing and the heart – pumping blood to the organs and tissues through bad, “clogged” blood vessels is becoming increasingly difficult.There is such a thing as general peripheral resistance from convictions. Probably everyone understands that when the liquid moves through smaller diameter tubes , more force is required from the “pump” side. With persistent increased stress, the heart wears out, and the heart muscle degenerates.

The consequences of clogging of vessels are the most sad – atherosclerosis, blood clots, in going to heart attacks and strokes, hypertension, arrhythmias and other diseases of the heart and vessels, as well as worsening of the work of all internal organs and the central nervous system.


In middle age, etc. otsessy thinking, memory and ability to learn new knowledge deteriorate. Frequently this is only due to the lack of nutrition and oxygen, which the brain receives less in connection with the “clogged” vessels.

But do not give up and despair – the heart, blood vessels and blood can be cleaned, return them a lost safety margin and prolong normal work for many years to come.


What is blood? It is a vital thick viscous liquid of bright red color.

It is constantly in motion, circulating through the closed system of our blood-


Why is it red, not blue, like princes and princesses from fairy tales? The reason for her color – a substance that is called hemoglobin. It is they who are filled with erythrocyte cells. In other words, red blood cells are red blood cells, and leukocytes are white.

The average blood volume in an adult is about 65 to 80 ml per 1 kg of body weight, in a child – from 8 to 10 ml per 1 kg of body weight. 55% of the blood consists of liquid plasmas , 4% of the “thick” cell mass.

Blood is a “vehicle”, on which absolutely all substances within our body move . That is why, on the second day, it is so important to start its general cleaning with the purification of blood and blood vessels. Unceasingly circulating, the blood supplies the tissues of our internal organs with oxygen and nutrients.

And it also helps to move to the “outlet” to all waste of our life. Therefore, reading the book further, you will understand why both traditional medical practitioners and traditional healers demand that we first of all clean our large intestine properly , from which blood “draws” toxins, slags, etc. into our bodies.

Think about it – by entering into any sick internal organ, the blood absorbs its “sores” and carries them further through the body. Meanwhile, only a healthy immune system of blood can protect us from viruses that are especially rampant in late spring and early autumn, all sorts of bacteria, food allergens and toxins , not to mention that only healthy blood can prevent the appearance and growth of an organ nism of malignant cells. In short, if the blood is unhealthy – there can be no question of the normal functioning of the whole organism. After all, having it is good , healthy immunity means that our body can easily have a pob To go to illness without the help of copper kametoznyh means, abuse of which, by the way, also destroys the immunity of blood. Even from the artistic Russian literature, we know that our ancestors attached great importance to the procedure of bloodletting, rightly assuming that it is extremely important for the purification of the circulatory system. If suddenly a deaf, prolonged headache starts , a heaviness in the liver, an ache in the lower back and joints, the doctor obliged the patient to leeches, and they soon restored the broken blood circulation.

Why the blood vessels become dirty

You already know that in order to prevent diseases of the cardiovascular system, you need to monitor the balance in the body of potassium and magnesium, which are actively competed with animal fats, rich in cholesterol, most of which in meat products.

Cholesterol is the slag from which we will have to purify the heart, blood vessels and blood.

Harm and benefit of cholesterol

To cholesterol the attitude is twofold. On one side , an excess of this substance often leads to atherosclerosis, and an increase in cholesterol levels is noted for obesity, diabetes, gout, hypertension and certain liver diseases.

On the other hand, cholesterol is an indispensable substance in the body: it participates in the synthesis of bile acids (during digestion ) and is the basis for the formation of corticosteroids, sex hormones and vitamin D, which regulates calcium metabolism. It is also a part of cell membranes , that is, it forms a “skeleton” for every cell in the body. Useful cholesterol is, in fact, the “handy” building element of the cells of our body.


Normally, the human body contains up to 0.2% (140-180 g) of cholesterol from the total body weight.

In human plasma, cholesterol is found in the lipoprotein complexes (lipo proteids). Low-density lipoproteins ( LDL) are isolated – in plasma up to 70-80%, and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) – up to 20-24 %. An increase in the level of LDL is a risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis and the formation of gallstones. HDL, on the contrary, have an anti-atherogenic effect.

Today, people who realize that health is really our main wealth, ensuring the inflow of any other wealth, try not only to eat right, but also to control the level of cholesterol in the blood. For this, it is sufficient to conduct a special blood test every six months. The grounds for referring to a doctor will appear, if suddenly it turns out that the level of “harmful” cholesterol in your body exceeded 4 mmol / l. And, if the indicators are not very depressing, doctors pre write to you for prevention of a special anti-sclerotic diet. Otherwise you will have to undergo medical treatment ment treatment. Or apply any of the techniques described in this book.

One of the causes of the violation of cholesterol metabolism is the excessive intake of cholesterol (LDL) with food. Alimentary, or nutritious, hypercholesterolemia occurs when consuming a large amount of food rich in protein and (eggs, caviar, liver, animal fats). Such a diet, more characteristic of residents of countries with a high level of development, and leads to atherosclerosis.

Cholesterol is produced in the body, and itself, especially with the help of alkogol and nicotine , which provokes the constriction of blood vessels (when, for example, we “smoked”, having spent the night at the computer, and feel as if our head compresses the head ). Thus, it is impossible to completely “not let” cholesterol into the blood vessels. What then remains to be done ? That’s right, clean them.

What is atherosclerosis

In this article I will use the concept of ” atherogenous plaques.” In the special medical literature, for example in the medical literature, the term “atherosclerotic plaques” is commonly found . This name comes from atherosclerosis – a disease that is rightly considered a “plague” of a modern person, most of all a secured consumer who does not deny himself delicious food and inactive forms of recreation, such as computer games. Atherosclerosis is submissive at all ages: if 5-6 years ago thought about the risk of getting atherosclerosis only by people and middle and old age, now more and more often pathological changes of blood vessels about they become teenagers, and it is from well-to-do families, in which there are all or almost all. “How to be?” – Ask shaken parents. First of all – to think over your diet and diet of your children. After all, the presence of atheromatous plaques in our vessels is not an irreversible process, and with some effort, we can expand the enlightenment in the diseased vessels, and then completely eliminate this infection.

When we talk about a completely healthy body, it is understood that absolutely healthy pure blood freely moves through wide, unoccupied arteries.

If the vessels are affected by atherosclerosis, this means that an overabundance of cholesterol in the body has led to a certain ( tending to constantly increase) amount of lipid deposits on the inner surface of the vessels leading to the development of atherosclerotic plaques. And their appearance is the surest signal of the fact that in the body the exchange of fats was severely violated.

Atherosclerosis is a chronic asteroid disease. It begins with the disruption of lipid metabolism and the deposition of cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins in the shell lining our vessels from the inside. Initially pho rmiruyutsya atheromatous plaque, then they are the proliferation of connective tissue (sclera Lake) and later joined etsya calcification of the vascular wall. These processes lead to deformation of the vascular wall and a sharp narrowing of the lumen of the vessel until the vessel is fully occluded. Consequently, the blood flow in the relevant organs worsens and their functions are violated.

Symptoms ischemia of different organs can manifest themselves even at a moderate restriction SRI vessels. Most often are affected:

♦ coronary arteries, which leads to the development of ischemic heart disease, up to angina pectoris and myocardial infarction;

♦ cerebral arteries, which causes cerebral ischemia until the stroke;

♦ vessels of the extremities, which leads to intermittent claudication, up to the development of gangrene;

♦ If a similar pattern develops in the renal arteries, then a sharp decrease in renal function is observed , and if in the arteries of the abdominal cavity, then the development of an intestinal infarction is possible .

It is clear that these are extreme options, but nevertheless …

In the late stages of atherosclerosis development there are violations from the coagulating blood system – against the background of already existing plaques and deformation of the vascular wall , microcracks can occur, on which platelet aggregation occurs with the formation of microthrombi. The state of the blood changes to the side of hypercoagulability – an increase in the level of clotting factors contained in the blood, and further increases the capacity for thrombogenesis.

Let’s compare our cardiovascular system with a water tap.

The new, just bought faucet supplies much more water than the tap, which lasted ten years. It is clear that on the walls of the old crane accumulated salt and rust on. With the cardiovascular system, the same thing happens over time . The blood begins to be pumped in a smaller amount, which means that absolutely all our organs also receive a reduced amount of nutrients. But there are also decay products , which are derived from our cells also during the blood circulation . Hence, with a decrease in the effectiveness of blood transfusion, they “get stuck” in us, provoking the emergence of various diseases and pathologies.

 Preventing Disease

Movement is life!

We work with you a lot – and suffer from stress . We “relax”, we urge artificial vivacity – and “finish off” our health with alcohol, cigarettes and coffee.

We earn well – and die from overeating and abuse of passive rest . It is hard to believe, but mortality from cardiovascular diseases has increased along with the spread of mobile phones. After all, the presence of a mobile phone at our fingertips has stolen from us even those few meters of “walking” that we have done to approach a stationary telephone set!

Modern medicine has progressed considerably in the study of the causes of heart disease , also because it changed its view on the role of skeletal muscles in the functioning of the circulatory cycle. For centuries it has been thought that the task of skeletal muscles is to help a person move, engage in physical labor and sports. It was meant that they are only “users” with respect to the circulatory system , after all, by making certain physical efforts, we force our muscles to consume 6 0-80 times more blood than in the state of “sofa-bed”, respectively, and increase the load on the heart . It turns out that to save the heart, you need to lie as much as possible and e move? By no means. Long-term rest state levels the micropump functions of skeletal muscles – in other words, they stop helping the heart pump blood and it is forced to work alone. Consequently , the heart becomes much more tired and wears out . Now you understand why the word “physical culture” is present in the list of treatment procedures prescribed by a cardiologist?

Alas, many people will argue – when to go in for sports, if the occupation and the working schedule itself (often unregulated) leave no opportunity for this?

First – a day at the desk, in the car or in the same pose at the conveyor , and then – household chores. After all , a single mother will not go to the gym, instead of preparing a dinner for the child and checking his lessons. So you can not lose a single possibility of “passing physical exercise”: for example, make yourself stand in public transport, even if there are places a (in the bus rolling, the whole body is forced to balance, so the skeletal muscles work). Take for the rule not to use the elevator, even if you live on the 13th floor. At first it will seem absurd to you, but decide for yourself that first you reach the elevator to the 10th floor, a few weeks later – until the 9th, after a few delays – until the 8th. After a while, hiking to your 13th floor will be something like an obligatory evening walk for you (believe me, with the experience of training this will stop taking you a lot of time).

But the most important thing is that the effect on the condition of the cardiovascular system of the system and the whole organism will be the same as if you bought a subscription to an expensive gym and went to work 3 times a week!


If you are already tempted by the idea of “cheap and angry” to go in for sports (that is, vital self-healing), take note of one trick. Still on approach to the house, start to breathe deeply. Once on the doorstep, you will have time to feed the blood with oxygen. This will help you in the fight against shortness of breath – at first it will not advance immediately, but in the course of time will cease to advance at all.

Remember that the most important thing – until mature years, keep the vessels elastic. And their elasticity directly depends on the flexibility of the body. After all, the vessels can not remain elastic for a long time , if the human body is in the same position for days on the computer, without detachment in order to bend a few times, or, until the office staff sees them , sit on the twine.

How to eat

Sad truth

We are well aware that on the Black Continent – in Africa – a disease such as AIDS is very common . But people with a sick heart, on the contrary, can not be found there.

Statistics show that the more developed and provided with a country, the more people with a sick heart in it , the more often cardiovascular diseases become the cause of high mortality . After all, a wealthy person regularly buys himself, for example, foods high in protein and cyanocobalamin ( smoked meat and fish products) and pasteurized dairy products. Among the countries where people die, including due to good nutrition, are the USA, Canada, Australia, Russia and Finland.


In 2000, according to statistics, with the measurement in Russia of cardiovascular disease, which arose against the background of atherosclerotic vascular lesions, was 801 cases per 100 000 population. In Japan, the same indicator in 2000 – 187 cases (the difference is almost 5 times!). This is due not so much to the development of medicine as to the way of life and nutrition. For

Japan is characterized by a bias in the “fish” diet , and seafood and fish just contain HDL, which have an anti-atherogenic effect.

You have already become acquainted with the main causes of accumulation in the body of cholesterol.

This is a “sofa” lifestyle and the lack of regular and balanced physical activity, a predilection for heavy meat fatty foods ( arenaceous, smoked, dried meat products, especially the gentleman’s kit “fish with beer “), regular use of alcohol. In addition to the fact that x- oleasterin deposits begin to grow inside of us , so also the body weight increases. Agree, only very few people are calm about the fact that they begin to grow stout. For most people, especially for women, this is a huge nuisance, if not a tragedy. However, we all begin to beat in great harmony when the weight really becomes critical. For the time being, it exceeds the body mass index suitable for us by only 4-5 kg ​​- this does not frighten us, they say, everything is normal , this age. Meanwhile, back in the middle of the last century, scientists proved that an “unplanned ” weight gain of 4 kg is the first step of the body on the way to atherosclerosis.

By the way, it is in the USA that the most depressing indicators for the contamination of organisms with cholesterol plaques are in people aged 65 and over. The reason is that for many decades the population of our country was eating “mass”, cheap and harmful products, and the shortage of food in the 90s of the 20th century convinced the many that potatoes with bacon and pickles are the most notable useful and satisfying daily food.

However, it will be naive to believe that atherosclerosis from this day is more often than not the “fun of the elderly”. A huge number of young people today strongly “save” themselves cholesterol plaques, because it abuses so- called “youth” products . First of all, this is the range of McDonald’s and all kinds of popular network bistros. Not less popular and all kinds of shop fast food, and it ‘s not just about hot dogs that we eat on the run, but also about office products – soups, pasta and instant mashed potatoes, which replace their lunch daily with 98% of “office ladies” .

It takes two months to absorb all these “Big Macs” daily , so that “colonies” of lipids are formed on the inner shell of our arteries. It is clear that just so a person does not feel it. However, scientists, trying not to miss the opportunity to formalize young victims of mass catastrophes and natural disasters , come to depressing discoveries. For example, among the young people who died in the terrorist attack in New York on September 11, 2001, there was a huge number of girls aged 26-30 and men aged 18-15 who had an intensive cholesterol deposition on the walls of the vessels . At 35% of these people, according to doctors, had a chance to be disabled in 45-50 years. Fast food is one of the main sources of cholesterol .

Modern life, especially in big cities, requires us to be quick. And increasingly “fast” seems to us pleasant and tasty. You can get rid of hunger by eating crisps. Free yourself from the evening prepared for buckwheat porridge, you can order the head pizza from semi-finished products. Traditional for many beer use after work is usually combined with a snack – the same fast food, as few people would think that before the beginning of a beer party it would be better to visit the most ordinary dining room or cafe, in which there is a real mashed potatoes, and not ” from the sachet. ”

There is an exit

The scientists’ assurance that atherosclerosis can be completely eradicated from our body , provided that the diet and sports are observed, is not mif. It is another matter that the diet of food , and the way of life, for people “stuffed” with lime-lipids, will have to be changed very seriously. And some changes in nutrition, without physical loads, too, do not cope. But after all, and the result is guaranteed – if we take care of ourselves for real, we can hear from the doctor in a year or a year and a half from the doctor that atherosclerotic plaques have dissolved inside us and disappeared without a trace. So everyone is free to decide for himself whether the passion for “urban food” is worth a significant shortening I have a life, the last years of which , moreover, have to spend a little sympathetic obese disabled.

We are used to believe that atherosclerosis, which is the result of an over-saturation of the body with cholesterol, is primarily an American problem. Do not consider jokes about the fact that Americans, by the grace of fast food, are the most fat and the least mobile nation. What is true here is that it was precisely the Mérican scientists who first raised the alarm, realizing that the population of the huge strata was a victim of food abundance. It was the “fat Americans”, who seriously took this national problem seriously , managed to achieve worthy results in the region and reduce the indicators of heart failure, heart attacks and strokes.

When the “anti-cholesterol boom” rolled across America, the US Congress adopted

A nationwide program to combat atherosclerosis , leading campaigns began to develop products without fats, sugar, salt and cholestina, and in American films, the smoking hero began to become a “loser” – the results after a while really impressed. During the last two decades of the last century, American physicians were able to halve the number of patients and 30% the number of heart attacks. And if at first the respectable mother Europe watched the anti-cholesterol activity of American industrialists and doctors with a mocking smile, then today it’s time to sound the alarm to the Europeans themselves. On example, the Czechs with their national predilection for beer and pashtetics or Poles – lovers of eating smoked meat.

Not so long ago, the European Union adopted a program for the European correction of lipid metabolism in European countries.

In the USA , despite the fact that “gourmet” products have not yet become a mass consumer , the situation with atherosclerosis is in fact nothing better than in Europe.

Today approximately 60% of the working-age population of the USA needs to observe a special atherosclerotic diet. The problem of atherosclerosis is seriously taken up by native scientists. They argue for a more responsible attitude of people to preventive measures. For example, in every family where atherosclerosis is detected in a person under the age of 55, a thorough examination of all people, including children from 2 years of age, is necessary , since they are all at risk.

Where in the world are most of the long-livers? Correctly , in Japan and Korea. It is there that the largest number of old people who have crossed a staggering line and are at the same time tolerably feeling themselves. Why? Because the food of the Japanese and Koreans is dominated by substances called phosphorolipids. The fact is that daily in their diet ration is dominated by soy and seafood, to which they contain phosphorolipids. By the way, another interesting observation – in the United States among the emigrant women, the highest mortality rates as a result of atherosclerosis is precisely among Japanese and Koreans, since their blood circulation system is particularly rapid Oily and heavy American food.

The main advantage of phosphorolipids is a powerful antioxidant ability.

They very “skillfully” connect and remove from the body x of the cholesterol and significantly inhibit the development potential of atherosclerosis. In addition, an increase in the human body phosphorolipids halved the risk of developing malignant tumors of internal organs.

In addition to soy and marine products, the inhibition of the growth of atherosclerotic plaques is influenced by the regular intake of certain vitamin supplements. The most effective of them is nicotinic acid, which doctors advise taking daily 3-4 g per day courses 1-2 times a year. As a rule, the course of taking nicotinic acid is calculated for several months. She also has positive side effects – vasodilation and acceleration of oxidation-reduction reactions , important, including for the prevention of atherosclerosis. Another anti-sclerotic drug, working on prevention, is ascorbic acid. The minimum dose of a daily intake that can improve lipid exchange, – 3 g. The adult is given a daily dose of 10 g. Being a strong antioxidant , ascorbic acid is continuously converted into dehydroascorbic acid, which contributes to the qualitative relief of free radical reactions, “difficult” for our body. By the way, most fruits ( especially citrus fruits) have a high content of natural vitamin C, which is easily absorbed by our body.

Finally, some physicians advocate for the regular reception of ion-exchange resins, which bind cholesterol and bile acids to more effective food products. I recommend you cholestyramine – the most effective for today’s anti-sclerotic copper kametoznoe agent.