Rates of cholesterol. How does a healthy body work.
As you already know, cholesterol enters the body with food and is formed in the liver. It does not dissolve in blood and moves through the circulatory system with the help of proteins - low density lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins.
When LDL is in contact with the cell membrane, cholesterol is easily released and enters inside. However, the body has receptors that control the absorption of cholesterol. Excess cholesterol remains in the blood, where it is easily oxidized and damages the walls of the vessels.
HDL, on the contrary, carry unused fats in the liver, where they are released, and then converted into bile acids. Bile acids and cholesterol are transferred to the intestines, where they are partially absorbed, and all unnecessary is excreted with feces.
Of course, a completely healthy organism is able to regulate the processes, withdraw excess, develop the necessary, but if there are any failures, then you need to monitor yourself.
It is believed that after 25 years, it is necessary to check the level of cholesterol in the blood every five years. First, a biochemical blood test is sufficient to determine the level of total cholesterol in the blood. If the cholesterol index is increased, then a lipidogram is prescribed - a detailed analysis of cholesterol showing both HDL and LDL. And if the results are bad here, then something must be done urgently. It is especially important to perform such tests after 40 years. It is also good to follow both the blood sugar level and pressure.
The content of total cholesterol in blood in healthy people should be less than 5.0-5.2 mmol / l, and in people with cardiovascular diseases - less than 4.5 mmol / l, LDL cholesterol - less than 3.0 mmol / l, HDL - 1.0 mmol / l, and triglycerides - less than 2.0 mmol / l.
The total cholesterol level is more than 6.0 mmol / l - very high. In this case, you need a correction diet or medication.
The ratio of HDL to LDL is called the coefficient of atherogenicity (CA). This is a very important indicator that helps to judge the level of high-density lipoproteins, and therefore, the risk of diseases with atherosclerosis. Than this factor is less, the more in the blood of high-density lipoproteins.
The coefficient of atherogenicity is calculated by the following formula:
KA = (total cholesterol - HDL) / HDL.
The older the person, the greater the coefficient of atherogenicity is allowed. In people under 30, the spacecraft should be less than 2.5; from 40 to 60 years can vary from 3.0 to 3.5; in patients with ischemic disease there are more than 4.0.
Remember: biochemical blood test is done in the morning on an empty stomach, since it is very important not to eat anything for at least 12 hours before taking blood.
Currently, the level of cholesterol can be checked instantly, using express diagnostics. A drop of blood is applied to a special microelectronic device - a tester, and after three minutes the results appear on its screen.
Why does the cholesterol level rise and what is it fraught with?
As you know, in this chapter we will talk about increased "bad" cholesterol, since it is he who brings various troubles.
Usually to increase cholesterol it is the wrong way of life: wrong nutrition, lack of movement, bad habits.
Modern man has acquired a lot thanks to the achievements of civilization, but also lost a lot, in particular, health. Most of us eat high-calorie, but monotonous food, poor substances necessary to the body, sit all day in a chair, almost do not walk, they smoke and drink a lot ...
All these actions lead to overweight, which also does not add health, but rather only takes it away. It is difficult for an obese person to walk, he has shortness of breath, joints ache, as there is a large load on the musculoskeletal system, pressure is increased, the vessels are narrowed, the cardiovascular system suffers.
Diseases of the liver, kidneys, decreased functions of the thyroid gland, diabetes, high blood pressure - all this also increases the level of "bad" cholesterol. These diseases can not be left without attention, it is necessary to consult a doctor and be treated.
The risk group, in addition to those listed above, also includes people whose close relatives had a stroke or ischemic heart disease, as well as hypercholesterolemia (ie, elevated cholesterol) or hyperlipidemia (high lipid levels in the blood).
In addition, with age, cholesterol usually rises (in men after 40, in women - during menopause).
It is interesting that representatives of Indian nationalities have the greatest predisposition to increase cholesterol.
Everyone knows about the dangers of smoking, but this knowledge rarely protects smokers from addiction. They do not want to think that smoking increases the pressure, that cigarette smoke narrows the vessels of the peripheral arteries, promotes the formation of thrombi, increases the blood viscosity and increases its coagulability, reduces the level of hemoglobin (which means that there is not enough oxygen in the blood), increases cholesterol and promotes development atherosclerosis. In addition, smoking harms the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract.
Excessive drinking also has a destructive effect. Among scientists, there are still disputes whether alcohol is useful in limited quantities. For example, most American scientists recommend drinking any alcohol (vodka, whiskey, gin, cognac, beer, wine, etc.) in small amounts to maintain the cardiovascular system is normal. Therefore, I do not advocate a complete refusal of alcohol, but it's worth knowing the measure in everything.
Detecting high cholesterol without tests is impossible, because there are simply no symptoms and manifestations of this. The result of increased "bad" cholesterol can be the following problems:
♦ you have a sore throat (narrowed coronary arteries of the heart, and consequently, manifested angina);
♦ The feet are constantly aching and sore (the vessels are narrowed, and the blood circulation does not work well);
♦ yellow spots appear on the skin, especially around the eyes (these spots are called xanthoma and are cholesterol deposits).
With excess cholesterol can turn into our enemy. An elevated level of this organic compound can cause:
♦ coronary (ischemic) heart disease;
♦ myocardial infarction;
♦ angina pectoris;
♦ stroke or a mini-stroke;
♦ irregular heart rhythm, or arrhythmia;
♦ stratification of the aortic aneurysm;
♦ arterial hypertension;
♦ Kidney infarction;
♦ thrombosis of the intestinal vessels;
♦ thrombosis of the vessels of the extremities.
Atherosclerosis is a disease of the blood vessels: on the inside of the arteries appear peculiar round or oval plaques that clog the blood vessels and interfere with normal blood circulation. Unfortunately, the development of atherosclerosis is very difficult to stop. However, it is necessary to get rid of these plaques, otherwise gradually the blood flow will be completely clogged, and this will lead to any of the above diseases.
Active, ambitious, purposeful people are prone to atherosclerosis, because they are more prone to stress.
Atherosclerosis is very difficult to treat, despite the fact that recently medicine, in particular cardiology, has achieved incredible success. Therefore, try not to bring yourself to serious illnesses, watch your health.
Ironically, atherosclerosis is one of the most frequent causes of death. Although this disease is not quite equally common in various countries. Europe and North America - the most "hot" points! It is also known that in cities people are sick more often than in villages.
To fight with atherosclerosis, and therefore, with cardiovascular diseases, it is possible with the help of movement and nutrition. Remember that the food should be balanced by protein, fat and carbohydrates, and also contain all the vitamins and trace elements necessary for the human body. And then you will not lose either lipid metabolism or carbohydrate metabolism. But we'll talk about this later.
Atherosclerosis occurs mainly at the age of 40-50 years, and in men it develops earlier.
Atherosclerosis is terrible because it provokes serious cardiovascular pathologies.
Coronary, or ischemic, heart disease is damage to the arteries that deliver blood, which means oxygen to the heart.
With angina, the heart muscle does not receive enough blood, which hurts in the chest, and discomfort is felt. That is why in people this disease is called a breast toad. In addition, angina is the main symptom of coronary heart disease.
Angina is usually accompanied by high blood pressure, severity, contraction or other pain in the chest. With this, the pain moves to the neck, jaws, back, hands, teeth. Nausea, cold sweat may also appear.
The attack of angina lasts from 1 to 15 minutes. Weaken it can rest and a tablet of nitroglycerin under the tongue.
If a blood clot blocks arteries or veins and the brain lacks nutrition or bursts of blood vessels, a stroke occurs.
Stroke is a terrible disease. And it is scary that very often at the first stages of its development a person does not feel any pain and discomfort.
Of course, the presence of these or other symptoms depends on which part of the brain is affected by the spasm. If the blood flow is disturbed in the parietal lobe, the person feels numbness of the limbs, tingling and "crawling" throughout the body. There may also be a feeling of an extra limb, you can not feel the temperature drop, do not recognize your fingers. When the occipital area is damaged, vision falls, the field of view narrows, objects are no longer recognized. If the stroke affects the front central gyrus, then the person can not normally move the right or left limbs, it can even paralyze. When the left brain is affected, the work of the right half of the body is disrupted, the right one is left. Damage to the center of motor speech leads to the fact that a person can not speak, he understands everything, but it is not possible to speak out normally.
So be careful, especially if your family has a core! Remember that with the first symptoms you need to urgently call an ambulance. Waiting for help, you need to put the patient on high cushions in such a way that the head was somewhere 30 ° above the bed, be sure to open the window, remove any tight clothes (belts, belts, ties, collars, etc.), measure the pressure of course, if you have a tonometer and you know how to do it). If the pressure is raised, place the patient's legs in moderately hot water. If a person tears, be sure to turn your head to one side so that it does not choke.
consumption of foods rich in vitamin C - raw cabbage, carrots, tomatoes, citrus fruits, strawberries, dill, sweet Bulgarian pepper, hips - is a kind of prevention of stroke, as they normalize blood pressure, reduce cholesterol, and therefore support the arteries in an elastic state .
Training the mind - solving crosswords and puzzles, playing chess and other mental games, as well as reading - supports the connection between neurons of the brain, contributes to its better nutrition, and therefore reduces the risk of hemorrhage.
To avoid a stroke, you need to dilute the blood. With age, the blood becomes viscous, which contributes to the formation of thrombi. This problem will solve ordinary aspirin. A quarter of a tablet a day for several months is good prevention. However, remember that if you have problems with the gastrointestinal tract, then you can not take aspirin. In this case, the problem can be solved by preparations based on horse chestnut, for example, escusane, esflazid, reparil. Of course, you need to drink tablets only after they have been prescribed by your doctor and after appropriate tests, in this case - on the prothrombin index. Prothrombin, or fibrinogen, is a protein produced by the liver and converted to insoluble fibrin, which subsequently forms a blood clot that completes blood clotting.
The heart rhythm can be prevented by poisoning with drugs, drugs and alcohol. Provoke it and pathology of endocrine glands, for example hypothyroidism (thyroid hormone deficiency), thyrotoxicosis (surplus of thyroid hormones), pheochromocytoma (a tumor developing from adrenal cells).
Arrhythmia can also lead to a disruption in the exchange of magnesium and potassium, even if excess potassium is caused, for example, by cardiac drugs.
A significant role in the emergence of exfoliating aortic aneurysm is played by:
♦ hereditary pathologies: Marfan syndrome - a systemic lesion of connective tissue, leading to disruption of the musculoskeletal system, cardiovascular system, eyes; Ehlers-Danlo syndrome - connective tissue disease, manifested in joint weakness, increased skin extensibility and tissue fragility;
♦ congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system - coarctation of the aorta, open arterio-venous flow, which should close soon after birth;
♦ defects of the aortic valve;
♦ atherosclerosis of the aorta.
Increasing blood pressure does not usually seem to us as something terrible and fraught with serious consequences. Well headache, "creepy" in the eyes, lie down, vasodilating tabelle-point you drink and ran on.
However, you can not be so inattentive to yourself, to your body. If there are any pains - this is a signal that you need to change something, that there are some problems. And the sooner we pay attention to this, we will begin treatment, the easier it will be to cope with the disease, which is likely not yet developed.
Usually, the pressure rises when the arteries or arterioles narrow. Consequently, hypertension develops if the vessels narrow as a result of spasm, and then remain constantly narrowed, as the wall thickens them and the heart is forced to throw out more blood so that it circulates freely.
Blood pressure is divided:
♦ the systolic or upper, reflecting pressure in the arteries, which is formed when the heart is contracted and the blood is discharged into the artery;
♦ diastolic, or lower, reflecting pressure at the time of heart relaxation.
The arterial pressure of a healthy person is 120/80 mm Hg. Art. If a triple measurement indicates that the pressure is above 139/89 mm Hg. then you need to sound an alarm. You have arterial hypertension!
Seriously take this disease, because it leads to other severe cardiovascular lesions. Remember that it is better to prevent the disease than to treat it!
Arterial hypertension is divided into three stages.
♦ Initial (soft) - arterial pressure sometimes rises slightly (usually does not exceed 160/100 mm Hg) and independently normalizes.
♦ Moderate - the pressure sometimes rises (but does not exceed 180/110 mm Hg), but it can only come back to normal with medication. In this case, there is damage to target organs: the heart, brain, kidneys, eyes.
♦ Severe (up to 220/120 mm Hg), and also very severe (more than 220/120 mm Hg) - high pressure leads to irreversible changes in the vessels, and consequently - to serious damage to target organs. And you need to treat them already.
The sudden rise in blood pressure is called hypertensive crises.
Atherosclerosis can lead not only to problems with the cardiovascular system and the heart. Any organs and tissues should normally be supplied with oxygen. Kidney infarction, or necrosis of a piece of tissue of this organ, is another disease promoted by an elevated cholesterol level.
Thrombosis of the intestinal vessels is a very serious disease. Without an operation with him can not cope. And the postoperative period is very dangerous: very many deaths. Usually the upper mesenteric artery is affected and sometimes the lower one. The upper and lower mesenteric arteries are the branches of the abdominal aorta. Their main function is to deliver blood to the blind, colon, rectum and proximal (proximal) part of the anal canal.
A number of diseases can lead to thrombosis of the intestinal vessels. And not in the last place are hypertension, portal hypertension, cardiosclerosis, the cause of which, in turn, is an elevated level of low density lipoproteins.
Atherosclerosis also contributes to the development of thrombosis of the vessels of the extremities, or thrombophlebitis. In this case, the venous vessels are deformed: their walls become very weak, apparently due to a lack of calcium, magnesium, potassium, vitamins A, E, C, P, increasing the viscosity of the blood. Weak veins are stretched, capillaries are broken and filled with blood clots, which leads to clogging of blood vessels. As the blood circulates poorly, lymph movement is disturbed, limbs swell, the skin itches.
Thrombophlebitis of deep veins is acute and chronic. In case of an acute attack, the body temperature rises to 39-40 ° C, legs (or hands) ache very much, swell, the skin becomes pale, shiny, tense, cold.
In acute thrombosis of superficial veins, pain is usually mild, body temperature rises (but not higher than 37.5 ° C), a small puffiness appears.
Chronic thrombophlebitis of deep and superficial veins is difficult to notice, as it usually is asymptomatic (the disease can develop for more than a year). Veins form nodules, the skin over them swells and turns red. Usually in this case, the arteries are affected.
Good blood circulation is a guarantee of health. But what to do to never face different thromboses?
The answer is: eat right and move a lot! Without this, no way! Fresh vegetables, fruits and greens must be at least 75% of your daily diet, and 3 km on foot - a daily exercise.
Elevated cholesterol takes from us years of full-fledged life, turning it into a constant support of ourselves, fighting the consequences of life in a civilized society.
Increase of "bad" and lowering of "good" cholesterol is promoted by:
♦ lack of movement;
♦ overweight and obesity;
♦ Old age (after 50 years);
♦ high blood pressure;
♦ Thyroid gland and endocrine system diseases;
♦ liver disease;
♦ Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
♦ genetic predisposition.
And if we can and must struggle with the first part of the list, then what to do with various diseases of internal organs and genetics? In such cases, we must take our health seriously and do everything we can to reduce the destructive power of disease. Naturally, you do not need to put the diagnosis yourself: for this, there are specialist doctors.
Especially seriously it is necessary to approach to problems with shchitovidkoj and endocrine system. And elevated cholesterol can serve as a signal to the fact that it's time to visit the endocrinologist. If the thyroid gland secrete more hormones than necessary, hyperthyroidism develops, and if less - hypothyroidism. In the first case, the metabolism is accelerated, in the second - slows down.
Symptoms of hyperthyroidism are:
♦ Tearfulness, excessive excitability, frequent changes of mood, insomnia;
♦ increased sweating, a feeling of heat;
♦ Periodically rolling weakness, palpitations, dyspnea, arrhythmia;
♦ Fingers of the fingers;
♦ bulging eyes, the appearance of bags under the eyes and swelling;
♦ double vision, defocus of vision;
♦ Rapid weight loss and frequent diarrhea.
Hypothyroidism, in turn, is accompanied by:
♦ constant fatigue;
♦ lack of appetite;
♦ sensation of cold;
♦ slowing of the heart rate;
♦ a sharp set of weight in the absence of appetite;
♦ problems with reproductive function (very painful premenstrual syndrome in women, infertility, milk release from the mammary glands);
♦ Muscle cramps and muscle weakness;
♦ dry, scaly skin of yellow-orange color;
♦ yellow dots on the eyelids;
♦ loss of hair (and not only on the head);
♦ frequent and recurring infectious diseases;
♦ Depression, inability to concentrate;
♦ speech deceleration;
♦ the appearance of goiter.
Scientists have found out that the nutrition of a modern person basically provokes hypothyroidism! Selenium deficiency in foods, fluoride in water, numerous soy additives, a deficiency or excess of iodine - all this leads our endocrine system out of action.
With an increase in the level of cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia), due to heredity, and in some other cases it is virtually impossible to reduce the level of lipoproteins without drugs. Let's consider some medical means.
Gemfibrozil (lopid), nicotinic acid (niacin), fenofibrate (tricor), clofibrate, estrogens and bednels increase the level of "good" cholesterol and lower - "bad".
Gemfibrozil, fenofibrate, clofibrate - derivatives of fibrous acid, which can affect lipids. Fibrates lower the level of triglycerides in the blood, but increase HDL, which speeds up the release of harmful fats and slows their production by the liver.
These drugs doctors prescribe mainly to prevent pancreatitis, heart attack.
Nicotinic acid is a vitamin of the B group. When the scale level of cholesterol is exceeded, niacin is needed in significant dosages - as much as 1-3 grams per day! The main task of this substance is lowering the level of LDL.
Nicotinic acid is toxic, but doctors say that although its administration leads to a slight increase in hepatic markers, the liver is not affected.
The frames block the production of cholesterol by the liver, while reducing LDL and triglycerides and increasing HDL.
Rosuvastatin (crucifer), fluvastatin sodium (losol), atorvastatin-calcium calcium (lipitor), lovastatin (mevacore), pravastatin sodium (pravochol), simvastatin (zocor) - all these drugs belong to the bed.
The choice of this or that medicine is the business of every patient and his attending physician.
I think you will be interested (and useful!) To know what the doctors are guided by when they recommend the frame.
♦ If you just need to reduce the level of "bad" cholesterol, then usually any camp is assigned.
♦ If, in addition to high cholesterol, there is also a chronic liver disease, pravastatin or rosuvastatin is usually prescribed at low dosages. Alcohol is strictly prohibited!
♦ If the patient has muscle aches or is already damaged by the bed, then the necessary medicine is pravastatin.
Do not self-medicate! Do not swallow pills without the need!
With any kidney disease or problems with them, atorvastatin calcium and fluvastatin should not be taken!
Sometimes doctors prescribe both inhibitors of cholesterol absorption (ezetimibe), and substances that enhance the excretion of bile acids. However, they should be taken, strictly following the rules prescribed in the instructions.
If the liver produces few bile acids, it does not cope with the conversion of cholesterol into them alone, bile acids (cholestyramine (quistran), colestipol (colestide), kolesevelam (velhole)) are prescribed, which reduce LDL.
Ezetimibe, or zetia, affects the absorption of triglycerides.
All beds reduce the risk of stroke, as well as muscle damage.
These drugs can be combined for greater efficiency. But at the same time (if necessary), doctors can prescribe a simple aspirin (for reducing blood coagulability), and drugs that reduce blood pressure:
♦ angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors: benazepril, captopril, zofenopril, cilazapril, enalapril, lisinopril, perindopril, quinapril, ramipril, spirapril, trandolapril, fosinopril, etc .;
♦ angiotensin II receptor blockade (ARB): valsartan, irbesartan, candesartan, losartan, telmisartan, eprosartan, etc .;
♦ diuretics (diuretics): furosemide, torasemide, ethacrylic acid, mannitol, urea, triamterene, diacarb, euphyllin, amiloride, cyclomethiazide, clopamid, chlorthalidone, spironolactone, eplerenone, etc .;
♦ beta-blockers: atenolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, metoprolol, nebivolol, acebutalol, talinolol, celiprolol, nadolol, propranolol, timolol, alprenolol, oxprenolol, penbutolol, pindolol, carvedilol, labetalol;
♦ calcium channel blockers: verapamil, diltiazem, nifedipine, felodipine, isradipine, lacidipine, felodipine retard, verapamil retard, nifedipine retard, amlodipine.
However, do not get involved in chemistry. Yes, pills reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, but they can not be harmless. It is proved that these drugs disrupt the liver, cause acute kidney failure, muscle myopathy (muscle weaken and lose strength), cataracts, and also cause depression and worsen memory. Therefore, do not load your body with pills without the urgent need. Lower cholesterol can be more harmless, although more difficult, more precisely - requiring more effort, methods.
Description of the preparation "Zeta ®" on this page is a simplified and augmented version of the official instructions for use. Before buying or using the drug, you should consult a doctor and read the annotation approved by the manufacturer. Information about the drug is provided for informational purposes only. Only a doctor can decide on the prescription of the drug, as well as determine the dose and methods of its use.