Cholesterol. How to defeat atherosclerosis?
People always want to be beautiful, healthy, full of energy. Who does not dream to live a long and happy life, to keep physical activity and a clear mind to a very old age? It would seem that civilization has reached such a level of development that the diseases must recede: so many methods of treatment have been invented, so many new medicines have been found ... But no, all new diseases arise, the person is chronically ill and incomprehensible viruses. It is difficult to find a fully healthy baby, not that of an adult. Certain problems will definitely appear. For example, not everything is in order with the stomach. And if it seems that the stomach will cope even with stones, so the heart is jabbing. Healthy heart? So the liver is upset or bad with sight, etc.
Everyone understands that health is a great wealth, but very often they do not appreciate it. However, there is always a reckoning: a person overcomes illnesses, and he begins to look for a reason why the trouble has not passed him, why he fell a test ... Yes, most understand that the wrong way of life (overeating, lack of movement, excessive consumption of fatty, sweet, floury , any additives and flavor enhancers, as well as bad habits) destroys from the inside. But just to understand a little. We still need to change something. And it is for those who want to do this, and this book is intended.
Do not dismiss the problems that have arisen. If you have an increased cholesterol - beeping. Change, it is still possible to fix everything with "little blood".
Pay attention to your food, sleep, physical preparation, mental state ... Most likely, you have problems, since the body sends you a sign, trying to lead you to the idea that it's time to change. However, do not rush to unintentionally declare war on high cholesterol! First, look into yourself, think about what you are doing wrong, what exactly you need to fight.
We hear a lot about proper nutrition, about the need to get rid of extra pounds, but we continue to eat rolls, French fries, fatty meat products, lard, sausages, sausages, sausages, hamburgers, sandwiches, cakes, cakes, etc. At the same time we forget about vegetables, fish, vegetable oils, nuts, fruits, we consider healthy food to be tasteless ... We overeat and, as a consequence, we feel heaviness in the stomach. We are depressed, we do not want to get up off the couch and dream of a cup of coffee with chocolate or a glass of beer with fatty spicules ... We are used to eating stresses, joys and sorrows, turning any meeting with friends into a plentiful feast. And then we wonder why they suddenly fell ill, why the blood test is bad and the doctors grab at the head!
Of course, taste preferences and concepts about the culture of nutrition are laid down in childhood, and then it is difficult for us to regroup, to change our diet. But it's real. The main thing is to find the problem and give yourself the correct installation. Do you like sweet things and you can not give it up? Remember when you are addicted to him and why. Perhaps, so you tried to cheer up, or did you get a sweet one as a reward, or did you eat out of a feeling of protest or solidarity with someone?
While we are not seriously worried about anything, we do not think that we are undermining our immunity ourselves, depriving the body of the ability to protect itself from infections, bacteria, viruses, making it weak and helpless.
A strong immune system is health. So what strengthens it? I think that it is not new to anyone that good mood and well-being are brought by physical exercises, walking outdoors, calm sleep, food intake with all necessary vitamins and trace elements. Our internal mental state also plays an important role. A broken, tired, depressed person is already unwell, even if nothing physical has yet manifested itself.
So cheer up! There is always a chance to change the situation for the better.
So, let's talk about cholesterol, we'll figure it out, he's a friend or an enemy.
Cholesterol. What is it and what is it for?
Cholesterol is fat, produced by the liver, kidneys, adrenals, intestines and entering the body with food. Cholesterol is necessary for the synthesis of corticosteroids and sex hormones. Although "cholesterol" - not quite the right name. This natural fatty alcohol, respectively, like any alcohol, cholesterol would be more correct to call "cholesterol." However, I will use a more familiar name.
"Cholesterol" in Greek means "hard, hard bile" (choloe - "bile", stereos - "hard", "hard"). Why bile, what does it have to do with it? It is known that cholesterol is produced by the liver ... However, everything is simple: for the first time cholesterol was found in the bile stones, which is not surprising: this lipid is contained in the blood, so that it can be found not only in the liver, but also in the muscles and the brain.
In the body of any animal this substance of high biological activity (steroid) is formed. And without it, life can not exist!
However, before talking about cholesterol in more detail, we will deal with fats, proteins, carbohydrates. It is known that the food we eat is made up of them. All these substances are split, and then absorbed by the body, resulting in energy. Consequently, all the necessary incoming calories are converted into energy, and surpluses are put aside.
Proteins can not be stored by the body, so they must act daily. At the same time proteins are heterogeneous in their nutritional value. The most valuable are protein-containing foods that split down to essential amino acids: milk, eggs, meat, liver, that is, animal proteins. These products are actually fully absorbed. Vegetable proteins are digested worse, and they are contained in plants in a small amount. The only exception is legumes (soybeans, beans, peas, lentils, beans). For an adult who does not engage in manual labor, the need for protein is slightly less than 1 g per kilogram of body weight.
Carbohydrates are the main source of energy. Carbohydrates are divided into simple (monosaccharides: glucose, sucrose, fructose, lactose) and complex (polysaccharides: starch, glycogen, pectin). Monosaccharides are very quickly absorbed, this is an excellent source of energy, so if you need to lose weight or not gain weight, exclude them from your diet. Switch to products containing polysaccharides: they are slower to digest, and contain much more necessary nutrients.
Remember that complex carbohydrates are rich in plant foods, which is also coarse-fiber, and therefore indigestible. As a result, it cleanses the intestines and promotes its functioning. This is a kind of adsorbent, removing excess cholesterol and other harmful substances.
With a normal diet for carbohydrates should account for 50-60% of caloric intake of food. Yes, carbohydrates help us to "grow" in breadth, but we can not completely abandon them, because their deficiency leads to the depletion of glycogen in the liver (reserves dissolve in about 12-18 hours) and the deposition of fat in its cells, which violates the work of this vital organ!
Fats are divided into saturated (solid) and unsaturated (liquid). The latter, in turn, are divided into monounsaturated and polyunsaturated. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are indispensable, but they are not produced in the body, so be sure to eat fish, vegetable oils, nuts. Fats and similar substances are involved in the synthesis of bile acids, hormones and vitamins, they are the energy reserve of the body. Fats are the most energy intensive, so they should be consumed, but not more than 80-100 g per day. It is known that the assimilation of fats depends on their melting temperature: the lower the melting temperature of fat, the higher its digestibility. Liquid fats are absorbed faster than solid fats.
Fats cause a feeling of satiety, inhibit the onset of hunger. This is because they stimulate the production of a special hormone, which slows down the process of digesting food.
As you can see, both fats, carbohydrates, and proteins are necessary for the body. Do not completely abandon anything. To be healthy, you need to eat a variety, including not to give up fat, for fear of excess weight, high cholesterol, blood pressure and other problems.
You've probably heard about the dangers of cholesterol. Of course, the oversaturation of the blood with fats leads to the fact that on the walls of the blood vessels they begin to be deposited, gradually forming plaques that clog them. In the first place, the blood vessels of the heart - coronary. And this means that there is a threat of heart attack, stroke, ischemic heart disease, angina pectoris, etc.
However, not everything is so straightforward. Do not forget that cholesterol is the basic building material of cells, without which it can not do: it covers the membranes of cells, creating a kind of framework, protecting the cell from external influences.
And that is not all!
It turns out, cholesterol:
♦ passes through the membrane the molecules necessary for the cell, and unnecessary - delays;
♦ helps the adrenal glands to produce hormones such as cortisol, cortisone, aldosterone. Cortisol regulates carbohydrate metabolism, cortisone stimulates the synthesis of carbohydrates from proteins, aldosterone is responsible for mineral metabolism and ion balance;
♦ promotes the production of testosterone (male sex hormone), estrogens and progesterone (female sex hormones);
♦ is an integral part of the lipoprotein compound of bile involved in the transport of fats to the intestines, as well as the hepatic intestinal circulation and general metabolism;
♦ helps to produce vitamin D;
♦ takes an active part in the metabolism of fat-soluble vitamins - A, D, E, K;
♦ separates the nerve fibers from each other, which facilitates the normal transmission of nerve impulses.
At present, scientists have come to the conclusion that cholesterol is necessary for the brain and the work of the immune system. In particular, cholesterol includes a mechanism to protect against cancer. In general, a strong immune system is able to protect against any scourge, including from high cholesterol. So raise your immunity, but do not destroy it with stress, depression, nervous breakdowns, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking.
As you can see, cholesterol is necessary for the body. But why did we repeatedly hear that an excess of cholesterol undermines our health? Let's figure it out.
It turns out that there is a "bad" and "good" cholesterol. It is one and the same substance, simply "packed" in different ways. "Packaging" can be called lipoproteins - small spherical particles that carry cholesterol and other lipids by blood and which consist of fat and protein. They are just needed to move fats, because pure fatty substances (cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids) can not deliver our blood to the right organs and tissues.
"Bad" cholesterol, or low-density lipoproteins (abbreviated as they are called LDL), carries fat (triglycerides) from liver cells throughout the body. It is this cholesterol that promotes the development of cardiovascular diseases.
"Good" cholesterol, or high-density lipoprotein (HDL), on the contrary, transfers cholesterol from the cells of the whole organism to the liver, which either cleaves it, or completely removes it from the body.
However, fats can not be carried by blood on their own. To the molecules of fat "freely traveled", they need to contact the protein molecule, that is, to form a lipoprotein.
70-80% of the daily requirement of cholesterol synthesizes the liver and other tissues from saturated fatty acids and acetic acid, and 20-30% of people get with food. If there is no cholesterol in the food, the body begins to produce it more than is required!
In the form of triglycerides (neutral fat), virtually all fats exist in the body. Triglycerides enter the blood either with food fats, or are formed in the body from carbohydrates. Calories that we use, but do not use, are converted into triglycerides and stored in fat cells just in case. When we urgently need energy, and from the outside nothing acts, under the influence of hormones these substances are split and used as a source of additional nutrition.
The synthesis of high density cholesterol stimulates the saturated fats contained in animal and dairy foods.
The molecules of "good" cholesterol differ from "bad" cholesterol and in size and composition. Small HDL molecules consist of 55% protein and 45% fat, and large LDL molecules, on the contrary, are from 90% fat and only 10% proteins. It turns out that "bad" cholesterol is formed in conditions of a lack of proteins and a large surplus of fats. Anyway, fats must be delivered to the desired destination ...
Of course, a healthy body with a normal metabolism is able to cope with excess fats themselves: withdraw them. Therefore, some can eat a lot of fatty, but do not feel any discomfort: their body simply processes excess (and this is assisted by HDL). But not everyone is so lucky. And then the "bad" cholesterol is deposited on the walls of the vessels.
But if we completely stop using fat, we will miss "good" cholesterol, without which normal lipid metabolism is impossible. So it is dangerous not to have a high cholesterol content in the blood as a whole, but an excessive amount of LDL.
It is proved that cholesterol is a kind of antidepressant. The lack of this organic compound makes a person aggressive and reckless, nervous and jerky. And such conditions only undermine health.
So, maybe, you should not try to get rid of cholesterol by any means and methods? Maybe it's enough to follow yourself, lead a healthy lifestyle, eat right - and will your state of health be excellent?
After all, even if you completely stop using cholesterol with food, your body will still produce it. However, the more a fan of fatty and high-calorie foods you are, the less cholesterol will your body produce. Why should he strain, if from outside there is sufficient and even excessive amount of the necessary substance? However, gradually improper diet, sedentary lifestyle disrupt the metabolism, and "bad" cholesterol is deposited on the walls of the vessels, which leads to atherosclerosis, and subsequently to cardiovascular diseases.
But, as you already understood, the main thing is not to overdo it! Lack of cholesterol (level below the norm) can provoke hyperthyroidism (increased activity of the thyroid gland), contribute to the defeat of the adrenal cortex, cause exhaustion.
In addition, the accumulation of "bad" cholesterol, or the formation of LDL, contribute to an unbalanced diet, a lack of protein in the body. It is known that northern peoples, eating mainly meat, do not suffer from excess cholesterol. So do not take cholesterol and meat products as an absolute evil. Without cholesterol, as without normal protein foods, normal cell development is impossible. This is especially true in winter. It is difficult to imagine that the body will function normally in frost if it receives only raw vegetables ...
It is known that the lack of cholesterol leads to disruption of the menstrual cycle in women, and also reduces or completely suppresses sexual attraction in both men and women. But the most dangerous is the lack of cholesterol for children. If a child does not actually eat meat, milk, eggs, he will not normally grow and develop, because the cells will not have enough nutrition to divide, and consequently, both physical and mental development will be slowed down, immunity will decrease, allergies may manifest.
Refusal of fatty can increase "bad" cholesterol! The use of low-fat or low-fat food usually increases the intake of starch and carbohydrates, which the body turns into saturated fat. If something comes in insufficient quantity, then the body will find how to compensate and where to get what it needs.
Scientists have proved that sex perfectly reduces the level of "bad" cholesterol. The fact is that female sex hormones do not allow cholesterol to be deposited on the walls of blood vessels. That's why women of childbearing age do not actually suffer from myocardial infarction, coronary artery diseases, etc. And sex is a simple and effective way of getting female hormones by a man!
So, cholesterol is useful and harmful. As we have already stressed, cholesterol is necessary for normal metabolism, hormone production, vitamin D, cell division, digestion of fats, and the creation of connections between nerve cells. In addition, this alcohol protects us from free radicals and viruses, that is, it acts as an antioxidant.
8% of the human brain is made up of cholesterol!
Low cholesterol levels suppress the immune system and produce corticosteroids - hormones that help fight stress.
So do not be afraid of eating fat, even if you want to lose weight. Fats can not be replaced by something else. Naturally, cells do not die instantly from lack of cholesterol, but hardly slow, but true death is better. Alas, our body has not yet learned how to synthesize linolenic, eicosapentaic, docosahexaenoic and alpha-linolenic acids (Omega-3 acids), which come only with food, but so necessary for cell division.
We must also remember that by sharply lowering the level of cholesterol in the blood, we provoke the liver to work more intensively, producing a greater amount of this substance.
As you can see, cholesterol is not poison, and it is not he himself that is scary, but his overabundance.
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